Close of the Year Tree Services
Ross Tree, a local tree company in business since 1978, operates twelve months of the year and provides fall and winter tree care services throughout the Denver area. The most popular late fall and winter tree services are deep root watering, winter pruning, Fire Blight treatment, and dormant oil spraying. David Boswell, Ross Tree’s General Manager, discusses close of year tree services that property owners should consider in Denver.
Even though Denver had a wet spring, our hot August this year stressed many trees in the city. If you drive by Cheesman Park, most of the Linden trees growing there are heat-stressed and thirsty. Now fall is in the air, and one of the best things you can do for your yard is to make sure your trees are well-hydrated going into winter. Hydrated trees are less susceptible to winter kill and sunscald damage. Sunscald is the freezing of bark following mild temperatures in the winter season. Well-hydrated root systems support robust growth and help trees resist unexpected weather changes, insects, and diseases.
Why Water Trees in the Fall?
With an average annual precipitation of 13.4 inches, dry winters are the norm here. For comparison, Pittsburgh gets about three times more precipitation each year than Denver. Native grasses grow fine in the foothills, but not trees, which is why Birches, Maples, Lindens, Alders, Oaks, Honeylocust, Elms, and Ash trees benefit from supplemental watering during the fall and winter.
An excellent time for deep root watering is in the fall before deciduous trees lose their leaves. Water uptake is driven when leaves give off water vapor through their stomata, creating a negative vapor pressure that pulls water from the tree’s vascular tissue to replace the moisture exiting from the leaf. Without leaves, water does not move as rapidly through the trunk and branches in the winter. Evergreen trees, like pines and spruces, retain their needles year-round. These trees still pull water up the trunk in winter, so they need to be watered sufficiently during the fall and winter months. Trees located in a windy spot or exposed to our hot western sun turn brown because of lack of water.
According to Denver’s City Forester, trees need 10 – 20 gallons of water per week for every inch of diameter. For example, a 2-inch diameter tree requires 20 – 40 gallons of water in one week, while a 20-inch diameter tree needs 200 – 400 gallons of water in a week. That is a lot of water. Most homeowners do not have the time or equipment for large deep root watering jobs. For proper tree watering, it is time to call a professional tree company, like Ross Tree.
Drought injures the root systems of trees. Affected plants may appear perfectly normal and may resume growth in the spring. Or they die back with dead branches or do not leaf out in the spring. Trees weakened by drought become susceptible to insect and disease problems. Below are signs of tree distress caused by drought:
- Trees turn colors and shed leaves prematurely.
- Shoot growth appears at the bottom of a trunk.
- Winter kill appears throughout the crown of the tree.
Deep Root Watering
Winter droughts occur when there is no snow cover to keep the ground moist. If yard trees are not watered, winter drought causes “winter kill” in the spring. Ross Tree uses subsurface probes to distribute water throughout the top 12 inches of soil surrounding a tree’s root system. Most of the water-absorbing roots are around the drip line, so we concentrate our deep root watering effort directly under the outer tips of the branches and slightly beyond. There is no need to water around the trunk since there are no water-absorbing roots in this area. Ross Tree has the equipment to water and fertilize the largest trees in Denver. Our plant health care trucks bring all that we need to the job which saves our customers time and money. To get the best results, the Ross Tree crews use a deep-root fork or needle and forcing water down to a depth of 12 inches. Below are the wintering watering guidelines provides by the Colorado State Forest Service.
- Water slowly: Deep root watering allows deep soil penetration and is cost-efficient.
- Lawn trees: Trees located in irrigated lawns generally do not require additional water in the summer. After the system is shut down, we recommend supplemental watering during extended dry winter periods.
- Mulch: Mulch reduces tree stress by retaining soil moisture and saving water. Apply 4 inches of mulch onto bare soil within 2 to 3 feet from the trunk base. Make sure the mulch does not touch the tree trunk.
- Winter Watering: Water only during the day and when air temperatures are above 40 degrees F, allowing time for the water to soak into the soil.
- Newly planted trees and shrubs: They require more water than established plants and should be watered twice per month between October – March.
- Water a wide area: Tree root systems spread two to three times wider than the tree’s height. The most absorbing roots are in the top foot of soil. Soak the entire area within the drip line.
Deep Root Tree Fertilization
In the forest, the ground is littered with leaves and decaying matter where trees take up nutrients easily. In yards, trees compete for nutrients with turf and shrubs. Also, some trees grow poorly in Denver’s clays soils because of lack of aeration, which decreases the root systems’ ability to replenish water loss brought about by our dry climate. Ross Tree recommends deep root fertilization three times a year to give trees need extra nutrients to reach their full potential and offset the lack of natural nutrient recycling in a manicured setting. Below are signs that trees need fertilization:
- Stunted growth: Clay soils stunt tree growth, and fertilization reverses this condition.
- Leave discoloration: Discoloration is a sign that your trees are not getting enough nutrition. Maples and some Oaks are prone to Chlorosis. Affected trees cannot take up iron from the soil, so their leaves turn yellow.
- Newly planted: Freshly planted trees are low on nutrients and need fertilization to keep them growing.
Ross Tree uses Essential Plus for deep root fertilization. It is a 100% natural soil amendment derived from potassium hydroxide, organic proteins, sugars, and Humic acid. Humic acid replenishes soils depleted of organic matter, helps alleviate soil compaction and provides a food source for beneficial soil microorganisms. The deep root injection:
- Enhances beneficial microbe populations.
- Provides microbes with a necessary food source.
- Improves root growth.
- Allows oxygen to penetrate the root zone and encourages fibrous roots to colonize.
Chapstick for Trees
Colorado is known for its 300 days of sun. Desiccation is an injury caused when the loss of moisture by the tree leaves exceeds the water taken in by its roots. Evergreens and some shrubs in Denver are especially susceptible to windburn and sun-scald. Ross Tree applies wax-like anti-transpirants to prevent plants from losing moisture through their foliage and help them look their best throughout the year. It is like chapstick for plants.
Fall and Winter Pruning
Did you know that trees set their leaf and flower buds in late summer? That being the case makes winter an excellent time for tree pruning because trees are dormant and not growing. The benefits of tree pruning when the leaves have dropped are as follows:
- Easier to evaluate tree structure: After the leaves drop, it is easier to see your trees’ structure and identify any problems. Winter pruning truly benefits younger trees and sets them up for a successful growing season.
- Better looking trees in spring: After a winter pruning, the tree directs energy to fewer branches, which improves the overall vigor of a tree. The buds on the remaining branches produce healthier leaves, fruit, and limbs.
- Saves money: Frozen ground allows heavy equipment to be staged next to the tree, so the job goes faster, lowering job costs and producing better outcomes.
- Less tree stress: Research shows that pruning during dormancy and before buds break in spring leads to faster wound closure and less stress. Healed wounds keep out destructive insects and pathogens.
- Avoids spreading disease: Many common trees diseases are inactive in the winter, so cold days are a perfect time to prune out dead wood, cankers, and other parts of the affected trees.
- Prevents winter storm damage: Winter pruning takes out any branches most likely to break to make trees less susceptible to snow breakage.
Ross Tree embraces ANSI pruning standards approved by the Tree Care Industry Association. Below are pruning types commonly done in the cooler months of the year.
- Structural Pruning – Structural pruning favors a dominant leader that promotes tree growth around a single trunk. Weaker tree limbs get trimmed back to their strongest point or removed. Structural pruning makes trees less susceptible to mechanical breakage caused by Denver’s wind or snowstorms.
- Rejuvenation Pruning – Bare trees show their structure, which makes trimming easier. Also, trees pruned in the middle of the winter have time to heal, with new spring growth covering any bare spots in the canopy.
- Safety Pruning – We cut out any dead, injured, or diseased branches that may become safety hazards to people or buildings below them.
Cold Weather Damage to Trees
When temperatures drop slowly, the tree has time to harden and acclimate to the freezing temperatures. The sap flows into the root system, and the tree adds tissue to toughen up and protect its branches and trunks as winter approaches. However, over the last two years, Denver experienced sudden drops in temperature in October. During a warm day, the tree cells beneath the bark become active. At sundown, the temperature suddenly drops, and the cells did not have the time to return to dormancy and freeze, injuring the tree. Below are the types of freeze damage:
- Winter Kill – Symptoms of “winter kill” include brown or black discoloration or branches and leave limpness. Pruning in the winter takes care of any damage caused by polar plunges in the fall.
- Sunscald – Sunscald affects tree trunks and large branches. Over time, the bark of the tree breaks down, exposing the tree to the elements.
Ross Tree uses light-colored wraps for winter protection. We wrap the tree in an overlapping fashion from the ground to the first branch. Homeowners should remove the wrapping after the last frost in the spring to avoid mold formation. Well-maintained trees that have healthy roots systems snap back faster from polar plunges.
Fire Blight Treatment
The bacterium, Erwinia amylovora, causes Fire Blight. When the temperature gets in the 60s in the spring, the bacteria multiply rapidly, forming a bacterial ooze that forces its way onto the bark surface. Insects become unwilling carriers of the disease as the ooze sticks on their bodies, and they visit other parts of the tree or other apple or pear trees in the neighborhood. Rain and hail splashes can also spread the pathogen to other parts of the tree. Later in the spring, the blossoms on affected trees appear water-soaked and turn brown quickly. Dead trigs and leaves curl up and form a Shepards’s crook, a telltale sign of Fire Blight. Winter is a good time for Fire Blight treatment because there is no need to sterilize the tools between cuts. For more information about Fire Blight, click here to view Ross Tree’s Fire Blight Handbook.
What Tree Insects Can Be Treated in the Winter?
Any insect or invertebrates, such as scales, mites, and aphids that overwinter as eggs can be treated with dormant oils in the winter. Scale insects suck sap from plants similar to aphids. However, scales have protective waxy covering and waxy egg sacks. Aphids are the most widespread insects in Colorado. Some species are significant trees pests, reducing plant vigor, producing leaf curl, or secreting copious amounts of honeydew. Spider mites are not insects but are invertebrates like spiders and scorpions. These pests feed on plants, using their mouthparts to break into the upper cell layers and suck the plant sap. Dormant oils suffocate the eggs of these tree pests. Homeowners who had a heavy infestation of these insects this summer should consider using dormant oils to treat these tree pests in the winter.
- Oystershell Scale – Lepidosaphes ulmi
The Oystershell Scale feeds on the phloem of trunks and branches. Heavy infestations produce stunting, foliage yellowing, and bark cracking. Branch dieback is a common symptom of scale injury, and sometimes scale-infested trees get Cytospora cankers.
- Pine Needle Scale – Chionaspis pinifoliae
Pine needle scales feed by sucking sap that causes needles to discolor around the feeding site. Heavy infestations cause premature needle drop and can kill branches and even young trees. Pine Needle Scale targets Mugho Pines in Denver.
- Giant Conifer Aphids – Cinara species
Giant Conifer Aphids adults are about 1/4 inch in length, long-legged, and brownish-green in color. Their eggs are shiny and black, resembling miniature jelly beans, laid in rows on twigs and needles. These aphids usually feed in large groups on the sap of twigs and branches. Heavy infestations cause foliage yellowing and produce large deposits of honeydew.
- Leaf Curl Ash Aphid – Prociphilus fraxinifolii
Feeding by this aphid causes Ash leaves to curl and thicken. Some adults form wings in July and fly around in the fall to other trees.
- Boxelder And Maple Aphids – Periphyllus species
These aphids are about 1/10 inch long, with yellowish-green marked brown bodies with spine-like hairs and hairy antennae. Heavy infestations cause leaves to drop and sometimes totally defoliate affected trees. Copious amounts of honeydew drop on cars, patio furniture, driveways, and sidewalks beneath infested trees.
- Honeylocust Spider Mite – Platytetranychus multidigituli
Heavy infestations of Honeylocust Spider Mites turn Honeylocustleaves an off-yellow color and causing premature leaf shed. Honeylocust Spider Mite targets drought-stressed trees planted along roads, parking lots, and other hot, dry sites.
- Spruce Spider Mite – Oligonychus ununguis
The Spruce Spider Mite is very common and damaging to spruce and junipers in Colorado. Highly infested trees become brownish gray and sometimes defoliate.
Believe or not fall and winter are active tree service months. The most popular close of the year tree services are deep root watering, winter pruning, Fire Blight treatment, and dormant oil spraying. For an appointment, click here to fill out a tree service request form or call 303-871-9121.